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CLEP Chemistry - Exam Topics Sample Questions

What is the bond order of O22- ?

Correct Answer:

0.5 to determine the bond order of the peroxide ion (o2^2-), we need to understand the concept of bond order and how it is calculated using molecular orbital theory (mot). bond order is a measure of the strength and stability of a bond, calculated as half the difference between the number of bonding electrons (nb) and anti-bonding electrons (na) in a molecule.

1 in the case of o2^2-, we start by considering the electron configuration of the neutral oxygen molecule (o2), which has a total of 16 electrons. according to molecular orbital theory, these electrons fill the molecular orbitals from the lowest to the highest energy levels. the order of filling for o2, based on mot, is σ(2s)^2, σ*(2s)^2, π(2p)^4, σ(2p)^2, π*(2p)^2.

1.5 when two additional electrons are added to form o2^2-, they occupy the next available anti-bonding molecular orbitals. since the π*(2p) orbitals are partially filled with two electrons in the neutral o2, the addition of two more electrons completely fills these π*(2p) orbitals. this results in the electronic configuration: σ(2s)^2, σ*(2s)^2, π(2p)^4, σ(2p)^2, π*(2p)^4.

2 to find the bond order, we calculate the difference between the number of electrons in bonding orbitals and those in anti-bonding orbitals and then divide by two. for o2^2-, the bonding orbitals (σ(2s), π(2p), and σ(2p)) contain a total of 8 electrons (2 in σ(2s), 4 in π(2p), and 2 in σ(2p)), and the anti-bonding orbitals (σ*(2s) and π*(2p)) also contain a total of 8 electrons (2 in σ*(2s) and 6 in π*(2p)). the bond order is then calculated as (8 - 8) / 2 = 0.

2 therefore, the bond order of o2^2- is 0, indicating that there are no net bonding interactions in this ion, which explains its relatively unstable and reactive nature. this is consistent with the fact that peroxide ions are often found in ionic states, stabilizing through interactions with cations rather than existing as diatomic molecules.

When discussing different types of chemical bonds, which one of the following statements is incorrect?

Correct Answer:
covalent bonds are most common between a metal and a non-metal.

the incorrect statement among the given options is: "covalent bonds are most common between a metal and a non-metal." this is incorrect because covalent bonds typically form between two non-metal elements, not between a metal and a non-metal.

to understand why this statement is incorrect, it's important to review the basic concepts of chemical bonding. chemical bonds are the attractive forces that hold atoms together in compounds. they include ionic bonds, covalent bonds, and metallic bonds, among others. each type of bond involves different ways in which electrons are shared or transferred between atoms.

covalent bonds occur when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. this type of bonding is most common among non-metal atoms. non-metals have similar tendencies to gain electrons, leading them to share electrons rather than completely transfer them, as seen in ionic bonding. examples of covalent bonds include the bonds found in water (h2o), where oxygen and hydrogen share electrons.

on the other hand, ionic bonds typically form between a metal and a non-metal. metals tend to lose electrons, becoming positively charged ions, while non-metals tend to gain electrons, becoming negatively charged ions. the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions forms an ionic bond. for example, in sodium chloride (nacl), sodium (a metal) loses an electron to become na+, and chlorine (a non-metal) gains an electron to become cl-.

furthermore, the statement that "covalent bonds are usually stronger than ionic bonds" can also be nuanced. the strength of covalent bonds can vary significantly based on the atoms involved and the number of electron pairs shared. in general, many covalent bonds are indeed strong, particularly when involving small, highly electronegative atoms like carbon or nitrogen. however, ionic bonds also exhibit strong attractions between ions, especially in solid states, contributing to the high melting and boiling points of ionic compounds.

lastly, the statement "polar covalent bonds are highly directional" is correct. polar covalent bonds occur due to unequal sharing of electrons between atoms with different electronegativities. the resulting partial charges create dipoles that are oriented in specific directions relative to the positions of the atoms, influencing molecular shape and the physical properties of the substances.

in summary, the statement about covalent bonds commonly forming between a metal and a non-metal is incorrect. covalent bonding typically occurs between non-metals, while ionic bonding is characteristic of metal and non-metal combinations. understanding these distinctions is fundamental in chemistry for predicting the properties and behavior of substances based on their bond types.