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CLEP Chemistry Practice Tests & Test Prep by Exam Edge - Free Test

Our free CLEP Chemistry Practice Test was created by experienced educators who designed them to align with the official College Level Examination Program content guidelines. They were built to accurately mirror the real exam's structure, coverage of topics, difficulty, and types of questions.

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CLEP Chemistry - Free Test Sample Questions

Identify a type of natural fiber.

Correct Answer:

the question requires the identification of a type of natural fiber from a given list. the options provided include polyester, hemp, fiber glass, and polyamide nylon. to determine which among these is a natural fiber, it is essential to understand the nature and origin of each material listed.

polyester and polyamide nylon, commonly known as nylon, are both synthetic fibers. they are manufactured through chemical processes, typically involving petroleum as a base material. these fibers are known for their durability, elasticity, and resistance to environmental factors, making them popular in various applications ranging from clothing to automotive industries. however, since they are chemically synthesized, they do not qualify as natural fibers.

fiber glass, another option listed, is a type of fiber reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fiber is specifically glass fiber. this material is neither derived from plant nor animal sources but is made from various types of minerals combined with plastic resins. it is predominantly used for its strong insulating properties and strength, but like polyester and nylon, it is also synthetic.

hemp, on the other hand, is indeed a natural fiber. it is derived from the cannabis sativa plant, specifically from the stalk of the plant, which is processed to extract the fiber. hemp fiber is one of the oldest and most versatile natural fibers known. it has been used historically for making ropes, textiles, and paper. the recent resurgence in its popularity can be attributed to its environmental benefits, such as biodegradability and the minimal use of pesticides and fertilizers during cultivation. additionally, hemp is also utilized in producing biodegradable plastics, health food, and even as a biofuel.

therefore, among the options listed—polyester, hemp, fiber glass, and polyamide nylon—the correct answer to the question identifying a type of natural fiber is hemp. this is because it is the only option that is derived from a natural source and is not synthetically produced.

In what aqueous solution does NH4OH (a weak base) become weaker?

Correct Answer:
0.1 m nh4cl

to understand in which aqueous solution nh4oh (a weak base) becomes weaker, we must first consider the concept of the common ion effect. this effect occurs when a compound dissociates in solution and releases an ion that is also a part of another dissolved compound. the presence of a common ion decreases the ionization of the weak electrolyte, in this case, nh4oh.

ammonium hydroxide (nh4oh) partially dissociates in water to form nh4+ and oh- ions. if the solution already contains nh4+ ions from another source, the dissociation of nh4oh is further suppressed. this is due to le chatelier's principle, which states that if a system at equilibrium is disturbed, it will shift in a direction that counteracts the disturbance.

let's consider the specific cases: 1. **0.1 m hcl**: hydrochloric acid is a strong acid that completely dissociates into h+ and cl- ions. the presence of h+ ions from hcl would increase the concentration of hydrogen ions in the solution, which can react with oh- ions from nh4oh, forming water. this reaction reduces the concentration of oh- ions, indirectly affecting the equilibrium of nh4oh dissociation by removing one of its products. however, this scenario does not involve the common ion effect. 2. **0.1 m nh4cl**: ammonium chloride dissociates completely in water into nh4+ and cl- ions. the presence of extra nh4+ ions from nh4cl directly applies the common ion effect to nh4oh. the increased concentration of nh4+ shifts the dissociation equilibrium of nh4oh to the left, reducing its degree of dissociation and thus making nh4oh a weaker base. 3. **0.1 m ch3cooh**: acetic acid is a weak acid and does not fully dissociate in water. it does not contribute nh4+ ions and thus does not directly exhibit the common ion effect on nh4oh. the influence here is more about the acidity of the solution rather than the common ion effect. 4. **0.1 m h2so4**: sulfuric acid is a strong acid, which dissociates into h+ and so4^2- ions. like hcl, the presence of extra h+ ions can decrease the concentration of oh- ions by forming water, affecting the equilibrium indirectly. this is not a case of the common ion effect with respect to nh4oh. 5. **0.1 m nh4cl (repeated)**: again, as explained in the second point, the presence of nh4+ ions from nh4cl directly suppresses the dissociation of nh4oh through the common ion effect, making nh4oh a weaker base in this solution.

therefore, among the options given, nh4oh becomes weaker in the presence of nh4cl due to the common ion effect, as it provides additional nh4+ ions that suppress the dissociation of nh4oh into nh4+ and oh- ions. this makes the 0.1 m nh4cl solution the most effective at weakening nh4oh.