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CLEP Natural Science Practice Tests & Test Prep by Exam Edge - Free Test

Our free CLEP Natural Science Practice Test was created by experienced educators who designed them to align with the official College Level Examination Program content guidelines. They were built to accurately mirror the real exam's structure, coverage of topics, difficulty, and types of questions.

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CLEP Natural Science - Free Test Sample Questions

Small, rocky bodies with variations in diameter that have pitted irregular surfaces are known as:

Correct Answer:

small, rocky bodies that often have pitted, irregular surfaces are typically known as asteroids. these celestial objects are primarily found in the asteroid belt, a region of space between the orbits of mars and jupiter where countless such bodies orbit the sun.

the size of asteroids can vary significantly, with diameters ranging from less than 10 meters to over 500 kilometers for the largest known ones. despite their varied sizes, most asteroids share common characteristics such as a composition of rock and metal, and irregular shapes due to their relatively small size and lack of gravitational pull to shape them into perfect spheres.

the surface of asteroids is often pitted and marked with craters, a direct result of frequent collisions with other space debris and asteroids. these impacts contribute to their irregular and rough surfaces. unlike planets, asteroids do not have atmospheres, so the processes that erode and smooth out features on planetary surfaces, like wind and water erosion, do not occur on asteroids.

studying asteroids provides key insights into the early solar system, as they are considered to be remnants from the solar nebula from which all other objects in the solar system were formed. thus, they can act as time capsules, preserving the conditions and materials that existed in the early solar system over 4.5 billion years ago.

in summary, asteroids are small, rocky bodies characterized by their varied sizes and irregular, pitted surfaces. found predominantly in the asteroid belt, these objects are crucial to our understanding of the early solar system's history and composition.

In double fertilization, both of the sperm nuclei do which of the following?

Correct Answer:
enter the embryo sac.

double fertilization is a unique and significant process that takes place in angiosperms (flowering plants). this process entails the involvement of two sperm cells that are carried by the pollen tube into the embryo sac, which is the female gametophyte located within the ovule of a flower.

the first key step in double fertilization involves both sperm cells entering the embryo sac. once inside, they perform different but complementary roles. here, each sperm cell has a distinct destiny: one sperm cell fertilizes the egg cell, and the other sperm cell fuses with two polar nuclei found in the large central cell of the embryo sac.

the fusion of the first sperm cell with the egg cell leads to the formation of a diploid zygote. this zygote will eventually develop into the embryo, which is the initial stage of a new plant. this process is similar to fertilization in animals and other non-flowering plants, where the fusion of male and female gametes results in the formation of a zygote.

meanwhile, the second sperm cell fuses with the two polar nuclei located in the central cell of the embryo sac. this particular fusion forms a triploid (3n) nucleus, as each polar nucleus is haploid (1n) and the sperm nucleus is also haploid. the resulting triploid cell will develop into the endosperm, which serves as a nutrient-rich tissue that provides sustenance to the developing embryo.

essentially, double fertilization is crucial in angiosperms as it leads to the formation of both the embryo and the endosperm, which are critical for the successful development of seeds. the unique aspect of double fertilization is that it ensures that the embryo will have a dedicated food supply in the form of endosperm, enhancing the efficiency of seed development and the subsequent survival of the plant species.

thus, in response to the question about the roles of the sperm nuclei during double fertilization, it is accurate to state that both sperm nuclei enter the embryo sac. this is the initial and necessary step for the subsequent processes of fertilizing the egg and fusing with the polar nuclei, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm, respectively.