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PEBC Canadian Pharmacy Technician Qualifying Exam - Blogs Sample Questions

The condition in which there is a buildup of fatty materials or plaque in the arterial blood vessels is which of the following?

Correct Answer:
atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of fatty deposits, or plaques, within the walls of the arteries. this process begins when certain factors damage the inner layers of the arteries. these factors include smoking, high levels of certain fats and cholesterol in the blood, high blood pressure, and high amounts of sugar in the blood due to insulin resistance or diabetes.

when damage occurs to the arterial wall, cells within the artery walls multiply and produce other substances that result in a buildup in the arterial walls. cholesterol, fats, and other substances in the blood also accumulate at the site of injury, sticking to the vessel wall. over time, these substances form a plaque that is covered with a fibrous cap. this plaque clogs the artery, leading to reduced blood flow.

the presence of plaque makes the arterial walls thick and stiff, which can inhibit the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the organs and tissues of the body. atherosclerosis can lead to serious problems, including heart attack, stroke, or even death. this condition can be silent for decades; plaques can slowly grow and block blood flow long before symptoms appear.

moreover, parts of the fibrous cap or the plaque itself can break off. when this happens, blood cells called platelets collect at the site to try to repair the artery. this clump of platelets can block the artery, leading to a heart attack or stroke. this is why atherosclerosis is considered a major cardiovascular disease, impacting millions of people worldwide.

preventive measures include maintaining a healthy diet low in saturated fats and cholesterol, engaging in regular physical activity, avoiding tobacco products, and controlling high blood pressure and diabetes. treatments may involve medications, lifestyle changes, or surgical procedures like angioplasty or artery bypass surgery, depending on the severity and location of the artery blockage.

The type of additive that is used to adjust the pH of a medication is which of the following?

Correct Answer:

in the formulation of pharmaceuticals, it's crucial to consider the chemical environment in which a drug is delivered, as this can significantly influence its effectiveness and stability. among the various additives used in drug formulations, buffers play a pivotal role in maintaining the ph at a consistent and optimal level. this is important because the ph can affect the drug's solubility, absorption, and stability, which in turn can impact its therapeutic efficacy and safety.

buffers are scientifically designed mixtures of weak acids and their conjugate bases, or weak bases and their conjugate acids. they work by neutralizing added acids or bases in the solution. this neutralization capability is what keeps the ph of the solution relatively stable, despite the addition of other substances that might otherwise shift the ph. for example, if a medication is likely to encounter acidic environments (like the stomach) or basic environments (like certain parts of the intestine), a buffer can help maintain the drug's activity by preventing significant ph changes.

the choice of a specific buffer and its concentration in a medication depends on the drug's properties and the intended route of administration. for instance, oral medications might require different buffering agents compared to topical or injectable drugs due to different environmental ph values and interactions within the body.

overall, the use of buffers is critical in pharmaceutical formulations to ensure that medications remain effective throughout their shelf life and when administered to patients. by stabilizing the ph, buffers help in preventing drug degradation and promote optimal drug absorption and action, thereby playing a fundamental role in the safety and effectiveness of medications.