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See why our users from 154 countries love us for their exam prep! Including 125 reviews for the Canadian Medical Laboratory Assistants exam.

Exam Edge is an industry leader in online test prep. We work with institutional partners to offer a wide array of practice tests that will help you prepare for your big exam. No matter how niche your field of interest might be, we're here to help you prepare for test day.

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Canadian Medical Laboratory Assistants - Test Reviews Sample Questions

Where is bilirubin derived?





Correct Answer:
heme. 


bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates. this catabolism is a necessary process in the body's clearance of waste products that arise from the destruction of aged or abnormal red blood cells. heme is an essential component of hemoglobin, the protein that carries oxygen in the blood.

hemoglobin is found within red blood cells (rbcs). as rbcs age and reach the end of their functional lifespan (approximately 120 days), they are broken down primarily in the spleen by macrophages, a type of white blood cell. during this process, the hemoglobin molecule is split into its component parts: the globin protein chains and the heme group. the globin proteins can be recycled into new proteins, while the iron within the heme is salvaged for reuse. the remaining portion of the heme is converted into biliverdin and then rapidly reduced to bilirubin.

the bilirubin that is formed is initially released as an unconjugated or indirect bilirubin, which is not water-soluble. this form of bilirubin is transported in the bloodstream to the liver bound to albumin. once in the liver, bilirubin is conjugated with glucuronic acid, which transforms it into a water-soluble form known as direct or conjugated bilirubin. this soluble form can then be excreted into the bile, which the liver secretes into the intestines to aid in digestion.

in the intestines, bilirubin undergoes further chemical changes, mainly through bacterial action, and is eventually excreted from the body in the feces, which gives it its characteristic brown color. a small amount of bilirubin is also excreted in the urine, which contributes to the urine's yellow color. this entire process is essential for the body's not only to manage and recycle heme-derived compounds but also to prevent the potentially toxic effects of excessive free bilirubin in the blood, a condition known as hyperbilirubinemia.

Which of the following terms is used for the encysted form of an egg?





Correct Answer:
oocyst


the correct term used for the encysted form of an egg among the options provided is "oocyst." this term is specifically associated with the life cycle of sporozoans, a subgroup of protozoans. an oocyst is fundamentally different from other cyst-like structures such as hydatid cysts, entamoeba cysts, or giardia lamblia cysts, each of which pertains to different organisms and stages in their respective life cycles.

an oocyst is a tough, protective shell that forms around a zygote, which is the product of sexual reproduction in sporozoans, such as those belonging to the genus plasmodium or cryptosporidium. this shell allows the zygote to survive outside the host organism, in harsh environmental conditions, until it finds a suitable host. inside this protective encasement, the zygote undergoes sporogony—developing into sporozoites, the infectious form of the parasite.

in contrast, a hydatid cyst is related to the lifecycle of echinococcus, a type of tapeworm, and not a stage of protozoan development. entamoeba cysts and giardia lamblia cysts are related to amoebas and flagellates, respectively, and serve as survival forms for these organisms under unfavorable conditions, but they do not house developing zygotes like oocysts do.

thus, when discussing the encysted form of an egg that facilitates the transfer and development of sporozoan zygotes to new hosts, the term "oocyst" is the appropriate and specific descriptor used in parasitology and microbiology.