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Canadian Medical Laboratory Assistants - Blogs Sample Questions

Which of the following drugs is NOT a tricyclic antidepressant?





Correct Answer:
phenytoin


the question asks to identify which among the listed drugs is not a tricyclic antidepressant. the correct answer is phenytoin. this is because phenytoin does not belong to the class of tricyclic antidepressants but is instead classified as an anticonvulsant.

tricyclic antidepressants (tcas) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and certain types of pain. they work by altering the levels of neurotransmitters in the brain, such as serotonin and norepinephrine, to help improve mood and pain perception. examples of tricyclic antidepressants include amitriptyline, imipramine, and doxepin, all of which were options in the list provided in the question except for phenytoin.

on the other hand, phenytoin is utilized primarily for its anticonvulsant properties. it is commonly prescribed to manage and prevent seizures in conditions like epilepsy. phenytoin operates by stabilizing the threshold against excitability in the brain, which helps to prevent seizure activity. additionally, it can be used in the treatment of neuropathic pain and as a prophylactic in brain surgery to mitigate the risk of post-traumatic seizures. however, it is not used for treating depressive disorders.

thus, among the medications listed—amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepin, and phenytoin—phenytoin is correctly identified as not being a tricyclic antidepressant. its primary use in treating seizure disorders distinguishes it from the other mentioned drugs, which are used to alleviate symptoms of depression.

What Mechanisms of Resistance category has the subcategories of beta lactamases and enzymes that alter aminoglycosides?





Correct Answer:
production of enzymes.
the correct category is "production of enzymes."

production of enzymes is one of the major mechanisms through which bacteria exhibit resistance to antibiotics. this category includes several biochemical methods by which bacteria neutralize the effects of antimicrobial agents. among these methods are the production of beta-lactamases and enzymes that modify aminoglycosides.

beta-lactamases are enzymes that break down beta-lactam antibiotics like penicillins and cephalosporins, making them ineffective. this enzymatic activity protects the bacteria from the otherwise lethal effect of these drugs. the widespread production and variation of beta-lactamases among bacterial populations are a significant challenge in the treatment of bacterial infections.

similarly, enzymes that alter aminoglycosides work by modifying these antibiotics, thereby reducing their ability to bind to bacterial ribosomes and inhibit protein synthesis. these modifications can include phosphorylation, adenylation, or acetylation of the drug molecule, each of which can render the antibiotic ineffective against the bacteria producing these enzymes.

understanding these enzymatic resistance mechanisms is crucial for the development of new antibiotics and for the modification of existing ones to overcome resistance. antimicrobial susceptibility testing, which identifies the most effective antimicrobial agents against specific organisms, must continually adapt to address these evolving resistance mechanisms.